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dc.contributor.authorJwo, Pei-Chien_US
dc.contributor.authorLai, Yu-Yingen_US
dc.contributor.authorTsai, Che-Enen_US
dc.contributor.authorLai, Yun-Yuen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiang, Wei-Weien_US
dc.contributor.authorHsu, Chain-Shuen_US
dc.contributor.authorCheng, Yen-Juen_US
dc.description.abstractWe have developed a new germanium-bridged heptacyclic arene, dithienogermolocarbazole (DTGC), in which two outer thiophene subunits are covalently fastened to the central 2,7-carbazole core by two dibutylgermanium bridges. The germole moieties embedded in the DTGC structure were successfully constructed by one-pot nucleophilic cyclization in a high yield of 88%. Because of the relatively lower polarity of carbongermanium bonds, the DTGC unit is chemically stable under basic conditions, rendering its more versatile functionalization. Comparison of germanium-bridged DTGC with the carbon-bridged DTCC (dithienocyclopentacarbazole) and silicon-bridged DTSC (dithienosilolocarbazole) analogues reveals that the HOMO energy level of DTGC lies between those of DTCC and DTSC and so does the LUMO energy level of DTGC. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that DTSC and DTGC have more bent structures than DTCC, which plays an important role in determining their frontier orbital energies. The structural disparity could be amplified in their corresponding polymers. The DTGC unit was copolymerized with four different comonomers, including benzothiadiazole (BT), dithienylbenzothiadiazole (DTBT), difluorobenzothiadiazole (FBT), and dithienyldifluorobenzothiadiazole (DTFBT) to yield a series of new alternating donoracceptor copolymers, poly(dithienogermolo-carbazole-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PDTGCBT), poly(dithienogermolocarbazole-alt-dithienylbenzothiadiazole) (PDTGCDTBT), poly(dithienogermolocarbazole-alt-difluorobenzothiadiazole) (PDTGCFBT), and poly(dithienogermolocarbazole-alt-dithienyldifluorobenzothiadiazole) (PDTGCDTFBT). Because of the two additional thiophene rings in the repeating units on the backbone to facilitate pi-electron delocalization, PDTGCFDTBT showed a lower optical band gap than PDTGCFBT. Furthermore, PDTGCDTFBT also showed the lower-lying LUMO and HOMO energy levels than PDTGCDTBT as a result of the electron-withdrawing fluorine atoms. Consequently, the bulk heterojunction solar cell incorporating PDTGCDTFBT delivered the highest performance with V-oc of 0.84 V, Jsc of 9.87 mA/cm(2), FF of 48.8%, and PCE of 4.05%. By adding 3 vol % 1-chloronaphthalene to tailor the morphology, the solar cell using PDTGCDTFBT with higher molecular weight exhibited the improved efficiency of 4.50% with a V-oc of 0.84 V, a J(sc) of 11.19 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 47.7%.en_US
dc.titleA New Ladder-Type Germanium-Bridged Dithienocarbazole Arene and Its Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Copolymers: Synthesis, Molecular Properties, and photovoltaic Applicationsen_US
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Applied Chemistryen_US
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