|標題:||New Economy, Underemployment, and Inadequate Employment|
Department of Communication and Technology
|關鍵字:||低度就業;不相稱就業;結構性失業;產業後備軍;underemployment;mismatch;structural unemployment;reserved army of labor RAL|
|摘要:||本文首先引用國家統計資料回顧台灣在就業結構轉型過程中低度就業、與職業結構重組的現象。進一步以電話訪問的問卷調查法以探討失業與低度就業兩者間的關係。 從「台灣地區人力運用調查」資料中顯示，國內就業結構在行業轉變上，較類似Castells所說之德國、日本之「工業化生產模式」，即製造業的就業仍佔一定的比例。但在職業結構的轉變上，則發現國內專業性的職業實佔相當的比例，此與美國的職業結構較為類似。然而，本文進一步發現，台灣在就業結構轉變過程中，重要的並非製造業裡結構性失業問題，亦非服務業中的「成本弊病」問題，而是嚴重的「低度就業」問題。進一步探究各行業的低度就業情況後發現，在分配服務業(distributive services)中，性別因素有其不同影響力(gender effect)，即女性在分配服務業中主要承受「低薪資」的未適當就業情況；男性則有較高的比例於「教育與職業不相稱」之低度就業種類。 最後，本文進一步研究失業與低度就業問的關係，針對國內領取失業給付者，其後來的就業情形進行電話訪問，研究結果指出「長期性失業」(long-term unemployment)將會是未來研究國內失業問題時一個重要議題，尤其是女性、年紀較大者、與教育程度較低者，其落入長期性失業的比率較高。而經歷失業之後能再度就業者，有超過三分之一的受訪者是從製造業轉到服務業就業；其次，年紀較大、教育程度較低者、與前職在製造業的受訪者，將有較大的比例進到低技術、低薪資的個人服務業就業。因此，年齡較高、教育程度較低的勞工，不僅有較高的失業機率，就算能再度就業，其所獲得的工作也多為低技術、低薪責的服務業工作，而成為取代性高、便宜的「產業後備軍」角色。|
This paper will first review existing literatures and empirical results from national statistics on employment transformation, underemployment and gender effects on occupational restructuring. Then, we further examine the relation between unemployment and underemployment by conducting an empirical survey. From the national statistics, we found that the employment structure by industry in Taiwan is more toward the industrial production model that categorizes a high percentage of industrial employment. However, if we examined the employment structure by occupation, then a similarity toward the US model, which characterizes an increasing and high proportion of professional workers was found. From the trends of industrial and occupational structures in Taiwan, we argue that neither the increasing unemployment rates in manufacturing sectors nor the newly cost-disease problem in services, but the phenomenon of underemployment will significantly represent the problem of occupational transformation in Taiwan. A gender effect of underemployment is found in distributive services, women in distributive services suffer more on the income-related inadequate while men reveal a high proportion of educational mismatch. The exploratory study reported the problem of long-term unemployment is an important issue in the unemployed. In particular, female, elder, and less educated respondent show a higher risk of long-term unemployment. More than one third of current employed work changed from manufacture to services. An industrial crowd out effect of aged, less educated and previously manufacturing labors toward low skill and low pay personal service sectors was found. For aged and less educated workers, not only the risk of unemployed is high, even they found the jobs, they were suffered the high propensity of working in the less skill and low pay service sectors. They were more likely to become the reserved army of labor who might become the disposable and cheaper labors.
Journal of Cyber Culture and Information Society