Rent and Land Rights: The Relation of Fujian and Guangdong and the Guard Posts System in He Xing Village of the Zhu Qian Area in the Qing Dynasty
College of Hakka Studies
International Center for Hakka Studies
|關鍵字:||隘糧;大租;閩粵關係;合興莊;陳長順;Rent;Guard Posts System;He Xing Village;The Relation of Fujian and Guangdong;Chen Chang-shun|
Today, the ethnic relations in Fujian and Guangdong during the Qing Dynasty are mainly interpreted in relation to the competitive and collaborative relationship between the ethnic groups of Fujian land owners and Guangdong tenants during the process of land development. However, the land system must also be taken into account if the interaction between these two ethnic groups during the process of land development is to be understood. In comparison with the land development system in the 18th century, in the 55th year of Emperor Qianglong's reign (1790) there was an additional guard post system situated at the rear of the hilly Qian Shan region. That meant that the tenants not only needed to pay rent to the land owners, but were also required to contribute their harvest as a form of payment for the defense of the strategic pass. Therefore, the specific roles played by the ethnic groups of Fujian and Guangdong must be understood before we explore their ethnic relations from the perspective of the tenant's land and strategic pass development system.<br> <br> As current study is mostly based on the understanding of the development of the Qian Shan region in accordance with the land-owner system in the 18th century, when land owners were top of the hierarchy, with those in charge of managing the guards being regarded as the employees of the land owners. The tenants' harvest (Ai Liang) and rent (Da zu) relating to the strategic pass are counted as one item and studied together. However, the author also finds that the tenants' harvest/additional tax (Ai Liang) and rent (Da zu) were in fact written in different formats. The rent (Da zu) was usually a fixed amount and printed on a fixed contract template, whereas the tenants' harvest/additional tax (Ai Liang) appeared on documentation as a supplementary charge. These two different ways of writing imply that the land system of the Qian Shan hilly region dealt with Da zu and Ai Liang as separate items and this understanding enables our further understanding of the actual operational practices of the tenant's land and guard posts system.
Global Hakka Studies
|Appears in Collections:||Global Hakka Studies|
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