標題: 四溪流域客語特徵詞比較
A Comparison on Distinctive words of Hakka Dialects in Four Stream Basin
作者: 鄭縈
Cheng, Ying
國立交通大學{國際客家研究中心}
關鍵字: 四溪流域;客家話;方言特徵詞;語言接觸;Four Stream Basin;Hakka dialect;distinctive words;language contact
公開日期: 2008
摘要: 有鑑於以往的研究無法完整呈現客家話詞彙的特徵,因此溫昌衍(2001)採用方言特徵詞理論來研究客家話的詞彙。方言特徵詞理論是李如龍近來提倡的方言類型學研究中關於方言詞匯比較研究的新理論,他認為:「方言特徵詞是不同方言之間的詞匯上的區別特徵,即一定批量的本區方言共有的而在外區方言少見的方言詞;各種方言都有自己的方言特徵詞;方言特徵詞批量的大小取決於不同的地域及其歷史文化條件(李如龍,2000)。台灣基本上是多方言(語言)的環境,方言或次方言之間的接觸相當頻繁密切,例如台灣客家話原來以海陸話或四縣話為主,現在又出現所謂的「四海話」。「四海話」最早由羅肇錦(2000)提出,根據鍾榮富(2004:62)的定義:「海陸及四縣客家人雜居之處,由於溝通的必要而產生了四縣和海陸客家話的兼語(pidgin)」,混用的結果以四縣或海陸客家話為主都有可能。客家話特徵詞在這樣的語言環境下會呈現什麼樣的面貌,確實值得我們做進一步的調查。本計劃以溫昌衍(2001)的研究為基礎。考慮到觸引發的演變會有不同的類型及特色(Thomason 2001,2003),我們選擇四溪流域中三個語言環境不同的客家話地點─鳳山溪中下游的新埔鎮(屬新竹縣)、苗栗後龍鎮及中港溪上游的南庄鄕,這三個點分別代表海陸客與四縣客、客家與閩南及客家族群與原住民之間的互動,探討客家話與不同方言或語言接觸過程中,其特徵詞或相關語法特點如何產生變化,及變化類型是否有所不同。第一年調查地點以新埔鎮為主,據當人的說法,此地客家人佔96%,絕大多數使用海陸話,但多數也同時能說四縣話。初步結果顯示,海陸和四縣話特徵詞的使用會因說話對象或場合而改變,屬於隨機的語碼轉換;換言之,次方言之間只有混還沒有合。 關鍵詞:四溪流域、客家話、方言特徵詞、語言接觸
As Wen 2001 pointed out that the main problem in today's study of Hakka’s vocabulary is short of deepgoing study, following Li 2000, he made a list of the distinctive words of Hakka, i.e. some words which often can be seen in Hakka dialect area but seldom seen in other dialect area.Contact is a very important mechanism for language, occurring whenever there is a large population within a language community (Crowley 1997), and such has been the situation in the development of Taiwan Hakka dialects. Si-Hai Hakka, first proposed by Luo 1998, means originally a pidgin resulting from contact between Sixian and Hai-Lu Hakka in Taiwan. However, later researches has shown that there may be lots of different combinations of Hakka pidgins since there are six sub-dialects including Sixian、Hai-Lu、Dongshi、Zhao’an、Raoping and Yongding.Previous researches on Si-Hai Hakka mainly focus on phonology. Based on Wen 2001 and the previous studies of Si-Hai Hakka vocabulary (such as Deng 2001, Huang 2005), in this project, we’ll choose three Hakka communities distributed in different areas in Four Stream Basin and try to explore whether and how contact influences the distinctive words of a dialect. In the first year, the Hsinpu town in Hsinchu County will be investigated, where there exist 96% Hakka people, and according to the native speakers, this town belongs to a Hai-Lu Hakka; however most of them can speak Sixian Hakka as well. Based on the data collected so far, it is observed that the variation between Sixian and Hai-Lu distinctive words depends on the situation. In this case, it is a code-switched instead of a mixed subdialect here. Key words: Four Stream Basin, Hakka dialect, distinctive words, language contact
官方說明文件#: 97-0399-05-0301-03
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11536/102610
https://www.grb.gov.tw/search/planDetail?id=1602802&docId=275188
Appears in Collections:Research Plans


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