An Investigation on the Language Ecology—Hakka Dialects in Upper, Middle and Lower Reaches in Feng-shan Stream
|關鍵字:||四海客家話;海四客家話;福佬客語;客語生態;族群接觸;詞彙調查;language ecology;Hakka dialect;language contact;Feng-shan stream|
Generally speaking, Xinzhu and Miaoli are well populated by Hakka people in Northern Taiwan. To be more specific, the population is concentrating alongside rivers including Feng-shan stream, Tou-qian stream, Zhung-gang stream, Hou-long stream. Alongside each river, the most noteworthy phenomenon could be observed—Austronesian is spoken in the upper streams; Hakka is spoken in the middle reaches; and Southern-min, in the lower reaches. The reasons that cause the distribution of different groups of inhabitants and language ecology could be explained in various perspectives. First of all, some inferred that the in-born habits to make a living among peoples differ. However, the chronological sequence of different groups of people immigrating to each area and the oppositional or merging attitudes among these peoples attribute to crucial and influential criteria. Thus, it is urgent to proceed an extended and thorough investigation which comprises the aboriginal languages such as Saisiat and Atayal in the upstream, Hakka sub-dialects including Sixian, Hai-Lu and Raoping in the middle reaches, and Amoy sub-dialects including Quan-zhou, Zhang-zhou, Zhau-an and Hoklo-Hakka. We will center on contact situation in Hakka. The mutual influence of languages could be analyzed synchronically in order to observe code-switching or mixing under contact situations. Furthermore, the residues of language change through time could be inferred diachronically. For example, the different combinations of Hakka pidgins such as Si-hai in Nan Zhuang and Tou-fen areas, Hai-si in Dahu and Hsi-hu areas, Hoklo-Hakka in Hou-lung and Zhu-nan, and elements of Zhao’an Hakka in Tung-xiao and Yuan-li …, etc. In all, the early reclamation and living in a compact community in this area together with language contact and fusion contribute to the special language ecology alongside the rivers. Therefore, in this project, we will focus on Hakka townships distributed along the four riversides and explore the contact situation on the basis of the distinctive words collected in each spot. The project will be divided into four parts and be executed in four years. First Year—Feng-shan stream (previously noted as “Tou-qian” stream). The languages distributed in upper, middle and lower reaches are Atayal, Hai-lu Hakka, Si-hai Hakka, Hoklo-Hakka and Hoklo. Tentatively, Jian-shi, Heng-shan, Guan-xi, Xin-pu, Zhu-bei, Xin-gang are planned to be investigated with one spot of each of them to be chosen. Second Year--Hou-long stream. The languages distributed in upper, middle and lower reaches are Atayal, Hai-lu Hakka, Si-xian Hakka, Si-hai Hakka, Hoklo-Hakka, and Hoklo. Tentatively, Tai’an, Dahu, Gong-guan, Tong-luo, Yuan-li, Hou-long are planned to be investigated with one spot of each of them to be chosen. Third Year—Zhung-gang stream. The languages distributed in the reaches are Atayal, Hai-lu Hakka, Si-hai Hakka, Hoklo-Hakka and Hoklo. Tentatively, Tai’an, Nan-zhuang , Emei, San-wan, Tou-fen, Tou-wu, and Zhu-nan are planned to be investigated with one spot of each of them to be chosen. Forth Year—Tou-qian stream. The languages distributed in the reaches are Saisiat, Hai-lu Rao-hai (Raoping and Hai-lu), and Hoklo. Tentatively, Wu-feng, Qiong-lin, Zhu-dong, Bao-shan, Liou-jia, and Nan-liao are planned to be investigated with one spot of each of them to be chosen.
|Appears in Collections:||Research Plans|
Files in This Item: