標題: 四溪流域客語的社會語言學研究
A sociolinguistic Investigation of the Hakka Language Spoken in Four River Valleys
作者: 曹逢甫
Feng-Fu Tsao
國立交通大學{國際客家研究中心}
關鍵字: 四海客家話;語言接觸;語言演變;次方言;Si-Hai Hakka;Language Contact;Language changes;Sub-dialects
公開日期: 2009
摘要: 本研究為三年期的計畫,為了配合總計畫我們分三年三個調查點來進行研究。第一年的研究區域為鳳山溪流域的新竹縣新埔鎮。新埔鎮為客家人佔多數的鄉鎮,此地的客家人大部分說海陸話只有少數說四縣話,但因為長期比鄰而居,生活上長期密切交往而形成一種特殊的客家話混合腔,羅肇錦教授稱之為「四海」客家話。自鄧盛有(1999)的碩論就不停地有關於「四海話」的論述發表。這些論述(見後附書目)都是有關不同的客語地區所發現的四縣與海陸客家混合語,但因為各地說四縣話與海陸話的人口比例不同,交往互動的方式也互異,因此各地所形成的「四海話」並不一致。本研究希望透過對新埔鎮的「四海話」在語音、詞彙、語法的結構、形成的原因,以及當地人對「四海話」的態度等進行深入的研究,並就這幾個方面與其他地方的「四海話」進行比較,以求得台灣島內四海話形成之共同原因,以及在語音、詞彙及語法方面之共同點及各地四海話的特色。 第二年我們將從事後龍客家話與閩南語比較研究,尤其是其中的稱謂詞、小稱詞與地名。我們將拿我們蒐集到的語料與台灣別的地區的四縣話客語及閩南語做一系統的比較以便了解當地客家話與閩南語的特色,以及長期互相溝通之後有沒有互相牽就而趨同的情形。我們將能提供實際的例子來支持或反對語言牽就理論(Accommodation Theory )和趨同演變(Converge change )的說法。 第三年本計畫將移師苗栗縣南庄鄉並對當地的客家人與原住民賽夏族族人進行“稱讚語行的比較研究”以探求其中哪些成分具有普世性而哪些成分是兩個文化所特有的部分。我們也擬經由比較研究找出那些成分是經影響而產生的結果,這樣的研究成果對於促進民族間之溝通與和平共處有一定之助益。 這些計畫都屬於微觀型的研究計畫,因此擬以鄭錦全院士所率領的語言地理資訊調查小組所得的資料為基礎,對其中具代表性的家庭進行更細密的調查研究。這幾項計畫也可以與劉秀雪教授所主持的「四溪流域語言接觸下之客家方言音韻對比」子計畫及鄭縈教授所主持的「四溪流域客語特徵詞調查」子計畫之研究所得互相參照、互相發明,我們因此擬定期召開工作坊以交換資訊並互相比對校正,與交換研究所得。
After a frequent contact between languages, languages may generally affect each other’s structures, and consequently, systematic language changes may result. This type of changes frequently occurs between sub-dialects. The sub-dialects of Hakka in Taiwan mainly involve two, i.e. Si-Xien Hakka and Hai-Lu Hakka. As these variations are in frequent contact a new variety, which is a mixture of the two has arisen and has been aptly termed Si-Hai Hakka. The studies on Si-Hai Hakka firstly appeared in Deng’s (2000) thesis, and later in Deng (2001, 2002a, 2002b, 2003), Chong (2006) and Chang (2006). However, every one of these studies was based on a few informants in one specific place, e.g., 峨嵋 Emei, 關西 Kuanhsi in Hsinchu country, and 平鎮 Pingjen, 楊梅 Yangmei in Taoyuan county. Although, these studies have certainly enhanced our understanding of language changes induced by contact, they have apparently failed to give a general picture of the linguistic processes that have occurred. Furthermore, they also have restrictions on revealing the direction of the language change. So in order to avoid the problems, this study intends to investigate more intensely the phenomenon of language accommodation in a village of Si-Xien Hakka surrounded by Hai-Lu Hakka in 新埔 Sinpu, Hsinchu.We will collect data in depth on phonology, syntax, morphology (especially on diminutives), vocabulary, and in the meanwhile,looked into the social factors, such as sex, age, and the background of the speakers to determine how they affect linguistic variation. After collection and analysis, the data will be compared with the neighboring Hai-Lu Hakka in Hsinchu and Si-Xien Hakka in Miaoli in detail to determine which linguistic and social factors are involved in bringing about the changes in the village and the direction of shift in the future. We will further compare our conclusion with Deng’s and Chong’s, and in the end, demonstrate the features generally found in Si-Hai Hakka on Taiwan and the triggers and mechanisms involved in these changes.
官方說明文件#: 98-0399-06-05-04-04
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11536/101598
https://www.grb.gov.tw/search/planDetail?id=1833114&docId=304742
Appears in Collections:Research Plans


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