標題: 頭前溪鳳山溪流域三官信仰調查研究
The Study of San-Kuan Cult in Feng-San and Tou-Chien Rivers drainage area
作者: 吳學明
Wu, Hsueh-Ming
國立交通大學{國際客家研究中心}
關鍵字: 頭前溪;鳳山溪;三官廟;土地拓墾;族群關係;客家;Toucian River;Fongshan River;Sanguan Temple;Land Cultivation;Ethnic Group Relationship;Hakka
公開日期: 2009
摘要: 頭前溪與鳳山溪為新竹地區重要的河流,也是客家族群主要的居住區。「三官」信仰原無閩、客之分,為民間普遍的信仰,但在三官信仰的表現上,呈現相當大的差異。在客庄居民多多建廟奉祀三官大帝,閩庄則較少建廟奉祀,因此台灣地區奉祀三官之廟宇多分布在客家地區,尤其是北台灣的客家地區。但是同屬客家族群聚居的鳳山溪與頭前溪流域,對「三官」的信仰上,卻呈現出不同的風貌。就廟宇的數量而言,鳳山溪、頭前溪兩溪流域者有三十餘座三官廟,其中在鳳山溪流域(含桃園縣之龍潭)的廟宇近三十座,而頭前溪流域只有4間(竹東、芎林各1間,橫山2間)。除外,三官嘗、三(界)官爐的數量也呈現相類似的現象。這種現象的形成,其背後的因素如何,值得觀察。 以1926年在台漢人祖籍調查資料,可見鳳山與頭前兩溪流域移民的祖籍來源並無太大的差異,因此粵籍原鄉的祖籍差異(惠州、梅州等),並非影響本區三官信仰的根本因素。鳳山與頭前兩溪流域三官信仰的畛異,如何形成,值得加以研究。鳳山溪流域的三官信仰,主要集中在今新竹縣關西鎮和桃園縣龍潭鄉附近地區,其中龍潭鄉地區是平埔族霄裡社主要的活動地區,關西鎮附近則為平埔族竹塹社衛家勢力的所在地。在移民開墾過程中不同族群(閩、粵、平埔)力量的強弱,是否對本區宗教信仰產生影響,值得觀察。本研究希望從土地拓墾過程中族群關係的角度切入,探討土地拓墾、族群關係、宗教信仰三者間的關係。 本調查研究探歷史學研究方法為主,除了文獻之蒐集、分析外,也經由田野調查的方式取得留存民間的資料。
Toucian River and Fongshan River are important rivers in Hsin-Chu Region, a main region for Hakka inhabitants. Originally, “Sanguan (Three Officials)” faith means no difference for Souther Min ethnic group and Hakka ethnic group, and it is a common faith in folk places. However, there exists a significant difference in the display of Sanguan faith. In Hakka villages, the inhabitants build temples to worship Three Official Great Emperors mostly, while in Souther Min villages fewer temples are built for worship. Therefore, in Taiwan, the temples worshiping Sanguan are distributed mostly in Hakka regions, especially the Hakka regions in northern Taiwan. However, Sanguan faith displays different styles in the basins of Fongshan River and Toucian River which are also populated collectively by Hakka ethnic group. As for the quantity of temples, there are more than 30 Sanguan Temples in the basins of Fongshan River and Toucian River; among them, approximate 30 temples are within the Basin of Fongshan River (including Longtan Township of Taoyuan County), while only 4 temples are within the Basin of Toucian River (one in Judung Township, one in Chiunglin Township, and two in Hengshan Township). Besides, similar phenomenon also exists in the quantity of Sanguanchang and Sanguan Furnace. It deserves observations to understand the background reasons of such phenomenon’s formation. According to the survey data of ancestor origin of Hans in Taiwan in 1926, it is obvious that the ancestor origins of immigrants in the basins of Fongshan River and Toucian River show little distinct differences. Therefore, the difference of ancestor origin from Hakka original domiciles (such as Huizhou City, Meizhou City, etc.) is not the fundamental factor influencing Sanguan faith in this region. It deserves further studies to understand how the distinct difference in Sanguan faith in the basins of Fongshan River and Toucian River has been formed. Sanguan faith in the Basin of Fongshan River is mainly concentrated in the nearby regions in nowadays Kuanhsi Township of Hsinchu County and Longtan Township of Taoyuan County. The regions in Longtan Township are main activity-regions for Hsiao-Li family of Pingpu Group, while the nearby regions in Kuanhsi Township are the dominant sites for Chuchian Wei Family of Pingpu Group. It deserves observations to know whether the strength and weakness of different ethnic groups’ power (from Souther Min, Hakka and Pingpu) during immigration and cultivation had influenced the religious beliefs in this region. In this study, the relationship among Land Cultivation, Ethnic Group Relationship and Religious Belief is to be explored from the perspective of ethnic group relationship during land cultivation. Historical Methods have been adopted mainly in this study. In addition to collections and analysis of literature, the data remained in folk places have also been obtained by means of Field Study.
官方說明文件#: 98-0399-06-05-04-21
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11536/101579
https://www.grb.gov.tw/search/planDetail?id=1836044&docId=304973
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