The Study of San-Kuan Cult in Feng-San and Tou-Chien Rivers drainage area
|關鍵字:||頭前溪;鳳山溪;三官廟;土地拓墾;族群關係;客家;Toucian River;Fongshan River;Sanguan Temple;Land Cultivation;Ethnic Group Relationship;Hakka|
Toucian River and Fongshan River are important rivers in Hsin-Chu Region, a main region for Hakka inhabitants. Originally, “Sanguan (Three Officials)” faith means no difference for Souther Min ethnic group and Hakka ethnic group, and it is a common faith in folk places. However, there exists a significant difference in the display of Sanguan faith. In Hakka villages, the inhabitants build temples to worship Three Official Great Emperors mostly, while in Souther Min villages fewer temples are built for worship. Therefore, in Taiwan, the temples worshiping Sanguan are distributed mostly in Hakka regions, especially the Hakka regions in northern Taiwan. However, Sanguan faith displays different styles in the basins of Fongshan River and Toucian River which are also populated collectively by Hakka ethnic group. As for the quantity of temples, there are more than 30 Sanguan Temples in the basins of Fongshan River and Toucian River; among them, approximate 30 temples are within the Basin of Fongshan River (including Longtan Township of Taoyuan County), while only 4 temples are within the Basin of Toucian River (one in Judung Township, one in Chiunglin Township, and two in Hengshan Township). Besides, similar phenomenon also exists in the quantity of Sanguanchang and Sanguan Furnace. It deserves observations to understand the background reasons of such phenomenon’s formation. According to the survey data of ancestor origin of Hans in Taiwan in 1926, it is obvious that the ancestor origins of immigrants in the basins of Fongshan River and Toucian River show little distinct differences. Therefore, the difference of ancestor origin from Hakka original domiciles (such as Huizhou City, Meizhou City, etc.) is not the fundamental factor influencing Sanguan faith in this region. It deserves further studies to understand how the distinct difference in Sanguan faith in the basins of Fongshan River and Toucian River has been formed. Sanguan faith in the Basin of Fongshan River is mainly concentrated in the nearby regions in nowadays Kuanhsi Township of Hsinchu County and Longtan Township of Taoyuan County. The regions in Longtan Township are main activity-regions for Hsiao-Li family of Pingpu Group, while the nearby regions in Kuanhsi Township are the dominant sites for Chuchian Wei Family of Pingpu Group. It deserves observations to know whether the strength and weakness of different ethnic groups’ power (from Souther Min, Hakka and Pingpu) during immigration and cultivation had influenced the religious beliefs in this region. In this study, the relationship among Land Cultivation, Ethnic Group Relationship and Religious Belief is to be explored from the perspective of ethnic group relationship during land cultivation. Historical Methods have been adopted mainly in this study. In addition to collections and analysis of literature, the data remained in folk places have also been obtained by means of Field Study.
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