標題: 四溪流域客語特徵詞比較(II)
A Comparison on Distinctive words of Hakka Dialects in Four Stream Basin
作者: 鄭縈
Cheng, Ying
國立交通大學{國際客家研究中心}
關鍵字: 四溪流域;客家話;方言特徵詞;語言接觸;Four Stream Basin;Hakka dialect;distinctive words;language contact
公開日期: 2009
摘要: 方言特徵詞是不同方言之間的詞匯上的區別特徵,即一定批量的本區方言共有的而在外區方言少見的方言詞;各種方言都有自己的方言特徵詞;方言特徵詞批量的大小取決於不同的地域及其歷史文化條件(李如龍,2000)。台灣基本上是多方言(語言)的環境,語言、方言或次方言之間的接觸相當頻繁密切,考慮到觸引發的演變會有不同的類型及特色(Thomason 2001,2003),我們選擇四溪流域中三個語言環境不同的客家話地點─鳳山溪中下游的新埔鎮(屬新竹縣)、苗栗後龍鎮及中港溪上游的南庄鄕,這三個點分別代表海陸客與四縣客、客家與閩南及客家族群與原住民之間的互動,探討客家話與不同方言或語言接觸過程中,其特徵詞或相關語法特點如何產生變化,及變化類型是否有所不同。在第一期計劃中,我們就以溫昌衍(2001)建構的客家話特徵詞為基礎,佐以鄧盛有(2000)、黃雯君(2005)的四縣與海陸詞彙對照表,來調查新埔鎮的詞彙使用。據當地人的說法,新埔鎮有96%的客家人,其中以海陸佔絕大多數,但是他們多數都會四縣話,海陸和四縣話的詞彙確實有些差異,但是此地在詞彙的使用上也出現「四海話」的現象,海陸客家話的詞彙中也摻入四縣話詞語。第二期計畫調查地點為苗栗後龍鎮,此地為客家與閩南雜居之處,我們將延續第一期的作法,並加上李如龍(2002)的閩南語特徵詞表,以便探查客家話或閩南語特徵詞或相關語法特點在這樣的語言環境下會呈現什麼樣的面貌。另一方面,我們在新埔鎮調查過程中也觀察到,海陸和四縣話詞彙有差異時,海陸話所用的詞語比較接近閩南語,但是語音不同,因此在我們希望有機會到大陸梅縣、海豐及紫金(也就是台灣海陸和四縣的原鄉)進行調查,以便了解海陸話詞語接近閩南語是到了台灣才因接觸而來的,或者是更早在原鄉兩種方言就已經有所接觸;同時,透過對大陸原鄉(梅縣/海豐/紫金)及新埔鎮、後龍鎮三種具有不同語言環境的客家話進行比較,能深入探討語言接觸如何促使客家話產生變化,及其變化過程。
As Wen 2001 pointed out that the main problem in today's study of Hakka’s vocabulary is short of deepgoing study, following Li 2000, he made a list of the distinctive words of Hakka, i.e. some words which often can be seen in Hakka dialect area but seldom seen in other dialect area.Contact is a very important mechanism for language, occurring whenever there is a large population within a language community (Crowley 1997), and such has been the situation in the development of Taiwan Hakka dialects. Si-Hai Hakka, first proposed by Luo 1998, means originally a pidgin resulting from contact between Sixian and Hai-Lu Hakka in Taiwan. However, later researches has shown that there may be lots of different combinations of Hakka pidgins since there are six sub-dialects including Sixian、Hai-Lu、Dongshi、Zhao’an、Raoping and Yongding.Previous researches on Si-Hai Hakka mainly focus on phonology. Based on Wen 2001 and the previous studies of Si-Hai Hakka vocabulary (such as Deng 2001, Huang 2005), in this project, we’ll choose three Hakka communities distributed in different areas in Four Stream Basin and try to explore whether and how contact influences the distinctive words of a dialect. In the first year, the Hsinpu town in Hsinchu County will be investigated, where there exist 96% Hakka people, and according to the native speakers, this town belongs to a Hai-Lu Hakka; however most of them can speak Sixian Hakka as well. Based on the data collected so far, it is observed that the variation between Sixian and Hai-Lu distinctive words depends on the situation. In this case, it is a code-switched instead of a mixed subdialect here.
官方說明文件#: 98-0399-06-05-04-03
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11536/101563
https://www.grb.gov.tw/search/planDetail?id=1833086&docId=304740
Appears in Collections:Research Plans


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